Tips & Tricks

You can permanently set environment variables for your shell by putting them
in a startup file for the shell.  The name of the startup file varies
depending on the shell - csh and tcsh uses .login, bash, sh, ksh and zsh use
.profile.  When using bash, sh, ksh or zsh, don't forget to export the
You can press Ctrl-D to quickly exit from a shell, or logout from a
login shell.
		-- Konstantinos Konstantinidis <kkonstan at>
You can press Ctrl-L while in the shell to clear the screen.
You can press up-arrow or down-arrow to walk through a list of
previous commands in tcsh.
You can search for documentation on a keyword by typing

	apropos keyword
You can `set autologout = 30' to have tcsh log you off automatically
if you leave the shell idle for more than 30 minutes.
You can use aliases to decrease the amount of typing you need to do to get
commands you commonly use.  Examples of fairly popular aliases include (in
Bourne shell style, as in /bin/sh, bash, ksh, and zsh):

	alias lf="ls -FA"
	alias ll="ls -lA"
	alias su="su -m"

In csh or tcsh, these would be

	alias lf ls -FA
	alias ll ls -lA
	alias su su -m

To remove an alias, you can usually use 'unalias aliasname'.  To list all
aliases, you can usually type just 'alias'.
You can use /etc/make.conf to control the options used to compile software
on this system.  Example entries are in
You can use "pkg info" to see a list of packages you have installed.
You can use the 'fetch' command to retrieve files over ftp or http.


will download the front page of the FreeBSD web site.
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